|The Kingdom of|
|Flag of Cygnar|
|Map of Cygnar|
| Official Languages
|Cygnaran, Ordic, Sulese|
| National Languages
|French, English, Italian, German, Cygnaran|
|Ethnic Groups|| 76% German|
|Government Type||Absolute Monarchy|
|HDI||▲0.802 (Very High)|
The Kingdom of Cygnar (Cygnaran: Karalystė Cygnar, German: Cygnaran Kaiserreich) is the name given to the original 8 kingdoms that were unified in 1871, and is commonly reffered as The land of the Cygnus , or The golden country or even The Golden Empire. To the north, it borders the nation of Mishmahig, to the south, Desaltonia the east, Rosswood. While only being officaly united in 1871, the first traces of civilization resembling cygnaran culture in southern Promethia, date back to the first millenium. The major kingdoms of Cygnar, such as Caspia, Ceryl and Imer, have origins dating back to 400 BC - 300 BC.
Cygnar can be called the birthplace of all warjacks, armored combat suits employed in the kingdom's military, and also, one of the most powerful nations within its region. Cygnar is the home to various important corporations, such as ''Cygnarren Stahlwerk, ''Hoechst Chemieingenieurwesen, ''VKN shipyards and the Corvis-based enterprise of ''Engines East. It is also home to one of the world's most important commercial routes, crossing the Hrothgar canal, that is crossed by over 300 commercial ships a day.
Even though Cygnar is made up of eight diferent counties, each one with a different capital city, it was determined in 1871, according to the Caspian treaty, that Caspia, the original capital of the Caspian Duchy, would remain as the national capital. The colonial possessions maintained by Cygnar extend to various corners of the world, totalling over 30 different islands around the oceans. Cygnar adds up a total of 96,610,000 souls, not taking into account the inhabitants of the mentioned colonial possessions.
The Creation of the Golden States, 0-1400Edit
The first traces of civilization in the lands of southern Promethia date back to 1000BC. But the first civilizations that shaped Cygnar were only born during the first millennium. The eighteen original kingdoms that populated the continent were known as the Golden Kingdoms, after their immeasurable wealth. The eighteen Germanic kingdoms had several similarities that enabled them to be classified together. They all spoke variations of the Cygnaran language. Their culture and mythology was similar, and they belonged to the same religious pantheon, that of the Catholic religion. Among the mightiest kingdoms, there were those of Caspia, The four Counties of the Midlands and that of Ceryl. Other powerful kingdoms laid to the North, those of Averland, Solland and Norden. The Caspian King, Hector the Golden, had the desire to unite the Southern Kingdoms in a single nation. He sought to conquer all of the seven kingdoms of the south, and established a strong presence within southern Promethia. The Kingdoms of the North united and created the Nordic Empire, while the six remaining Kingdoms of the east, were conquered by Ceryl, forming the Cerylian Empire. The three newfounded nations barely maintained diplomatic relations between each other, what delayed the process of unification of the lands of Cygnar for centuries. While nations to the north were already being born, the peoples of Cygnus remained divided. The Cerylian King, Edward III, in 1340, started the longest war of Cygnar’s history, that of the Hundred Years War. He wanted to claim the lands south of Ceryl which rightfully belonged to him, but were seized by the Nordic Empire during its formation. The Nords were successful in their first campaigns, but in the later period of war, they were decisively defeated by the Cerylians in the battle of Corvis, leading to the fall of the Nordic Empire, originating the three kingdoms of Thuria, Corvis and Averheim. While the two kingdoms drove their attention to the war, the Caspians were able to develop further ahead of both kingdoms. Their technology was much advanced, their armies were powerful, and they were able to create a trading network reaching the various corners of the world. The city of Caspia by itself, was majestic, home to the world's biggest cathedral and largest castles at the time. Caspian Caravels sailed to the far east to bring spices, while some sailed west to import tools and basic machinery, turning caspia into a beacon of world commerce.
No name yet,1701-1859Edit
The Origins of Cygnar, 1860-1871Edit
The lands that are nowadays known as cygnar, were only finally unified in 1871. Before that, Cygnar was more of a group of several duchies and principalities, each one with its own ruler. These various nations, were only united into a single country that it is nowadays in 1871, in the treaty of Caspia, during King Valmir III's reign.
It was only thanks to Duke Valmir III's effort that Cygnar was united, due to the fact that since 1860 the Caspians were trying to unite the country. The caspians were being supported by the County of the Midlands, who, together with Caspia, waged a war to finally unite the Golden Kingdoms.
The war that is known nowadays as the Unification wars was fought between primarily two sides: The Separatists, who fought to keep the different nations separated, and the loyalists, who answered to Duke Valmir III, and seeked to unite the kingdoms once and for all. The separatists feared that if the country was united, all other kingdoms would fall to the Caspian control, due to great differences in regional populations and economic power from state to state. The loyalists had a much more powerful army, but in contrary, the separatists possessed a more powerful navy (mostly thanks to the presence of Ceryl in their side). The start of the war happened in the November 16th of 1860, when Caspia officially declared war, followed by The Midlands, against the other six kingdoms. The Cygnarans first aimed to cut the supply lines between the north and the south, so their first target was Corvis. The caspians besieged the city for over three weeks, and then, the city surrended. With the south isolated from the rest of the country, it wouldn't take long until Telmar and Imer surrended. Now, the main focus was to take out the main naval strongholds of the separatists, Highgate and Ceryl.
By the morning of the 23rd of July, 1865, an army of 80 thousand Caspians marched to conquer Highgate to their south. But for their surprise, when they arrived at highgate, they met no resistance. The ports were empty, and no ship could be seen at the sea. The Nulnian Navy had moved to blockade Caspia, and it was too late to head back and save the capital. Caspia would last at maximum a total of 4 weeks blockaded, what should have been enough time to launch a counter offensive at the enemy's capital, Nuln. The strategic planning was commissioned by Lord General Helmuth Bracke, who later commanded a force of 200,000 soldiers that would march towards Nuln. After 5 days of battle, the city was overrun by loyalist forces. Now the only city that remained was Ceryl. Built within a large plateau, this city had a natural barrier.
The Loyalists amassed a total of 400,000 soldiers at Point Bourne, and headed towards the enemy's last foothold, Ceryl. Commanded by Lord-General Otto von Troppenheim, the massive army composed by units from both nations stormed Ceryl for three days, until the city surrended to the might of the Caspian-Midlunder army.
After 10 years of war, with the separatists defeated at the battle of Ceryl, the defeated nations were forced to sign the treaty of Caspia, that would oblige the losing combatants to merge into Cygnar, the newly created nation.
Cygnar's most populated region, was that of the city of Caspia and its surroundings. In 1871, the Caspian province totalled a number of 24 million inhabitants, a huge number for the time. Closely followed by the Midlands, with its 19 million inhabitants, Caspia would probably lose if compared economically to the Midlands. The most industrialized area of Cygnar, the Midlands were also in the middle of the Wyrmwall, the richest area in minerals and fuels, what lead to a faster industrialization. Heading northwest, you would reach the province of Ceryl, a key location due to its coastal position, what enabled the state to own a powerful navy and a large merchant fleet. To the northeast, in Cygnar's borderlands, there was the mighty city of Corvis, one of the most densely populated region of the kingdom (it's was city state until then). The city was cut into several parts by the Reik river, that travels southward until ending in the Kislev Bay. The lands to the south of Corvis were known as Thuria. Rich in minerals, this region was never fully industrialized, leading it to depend on its natural resources to export. To the south of Caspia, there were the two kingdoms of Telmar and Imer. Both were located in a desertic coast, the land there was not fertile, however rich in fuel resources. Telmar was more densely populated than any other city surrounding it. In the city, there is the Telmarine fortress, a mighty bastion used to house the Imperial High command meeting chambers. Lastly, there was the industrial city of Nuln. Located in one of the islands in the broken coast, this city is unrivalled in its production of artillery and ammunition. With a stunning population of 7 million souls, Nuln was often related to the black color, resembling the pollution in the city caused by the industrial furnaces present there.
The Treaty of Caspia, 1872-1875Edit
In the 23rd of february of 1871, the eight leaders of the eight golden kingdoms were summoned at the Imperial Tower in Caspia, to sign the document that would officially create the nation of Cygnar,composed by the eight kingdoms. The years that followed the signing of the treaty of Caspia, changed Cygnar forever. Before, there was more of a collection of cultures spread through the southern Promethian continent. Now, there was a national culture and a standardized language. Also, with the unification, there was a national currency. But half of Cygnar was devastated, after the bloody 10-years war that was waged accross the eight kingdoms. The government's top priority at the time, was to stimulate growth and help the nation rebuild.
Ceryl, was probably the most devastated city. But it also was Cygnar's biggest port, so beside repairs, the king would modernize the ports, build a new railroad connecting Ceryl and Caspia and improve the city's infraestructure. Nuln, Telmar and Imer, were not as damaged as Ceryl, but were also in poor conditions. Nuln, had one of Cygnar's biggest industrial zones, so it was the focus within the southern kingdoms.
King Vilmar III, once Duke of Caspia, saw infraestructure as the basis for having a powerful national industry, so in the years that followed the treaty of Caspia, he sought to modernize all Cygnar, new ports, over 40 thousand kilometers of railroads, a national telegraph network, and paved roads in cities and in major com
mercial routes. He thought that with a modernized infraestructure, not only industry, but also logistics in general would be made simplier, including the military effectviness of the Cygnaran army, that, before this event, relied on foot marching to reach most destinations.
In order to further boost Cygnar's economy in the following years and create a basis for an industrial boom, Vilmar also created over 83 new coal mines, 67 iron mines, 32 sulfur mines, 31 stone quarries, 24 marble quarries and 5 new gold mines. Cygnar's output of mineral resources grew over 400% between 1871 and 1880, what lead to a
faster and more efficient process of industrialization.
Cygnar could not triumph politically and economically without a proper sea-force. With this in mind, Warmaster General of Navy, Ortwin Ruffer, requested a new plan to increase Cygnar's navy, both merchant and military, to the King. Vilmar saw this proposal with great interest, and in the following years, Cygnar's navy grew from 50 ships to 400, while a merchant fleet was now officially created, having over 300 merchant ships, including large scale commercial vessels capable of intercontinental travel.
But an economy would not triumph without qualified workers, so besides from railroads, King Vilmar III built the national academy of Science, The Royal Physics Academy, The Imperial university of Caspia, and built the first 400 public schools of Cygnar. He is often referred to as the father of education, for most of Cygnar's knowledge nowadays, was only thanks to this man. During his reign, the first dictionary of the Cygnaran language was created. A national school curriculum was also established, even though it looked much alike to Caspia's curriculum before the unification.
The Years of Industrialization, 1876-1890Edit
King Vilmar III layered the foundation for the national industry to grow, thanks to the improvements made during his reign, Cygnar was able to industrialize itself much faster and more efficiently. King Vilmar, however resigned due to his old age, at 1875, he was already 65 years old. His cousin, now King Hector III, assumed control of Cygnar during its golden years. The process that lasted for one decade, is known as the years of industrialization, when the Cygnaran national industry was born.This process can be broke down into three different phases, the phase of mechanical engineering (1875-1882), the process of chemical engineering (1882-1886), and finally, the process of electrical engineering (1882-1885). The first phase, was marked by the origin of mostly heavy engineering companies along with heavy industries. Examples of these, can include the creation of the Cygnarren Stahlwerk, or CYN Steelworks, Engines East and the origin of the Vaktorian-Werften, or VKN Shipyards. These enterprises were the base of Cygnar's economy, with 25% of all employed citizens in Cygnar belonging to one of the corporations mentioned above. CYN Steelworks, had already expanded its array of factories all around Cygnar: Ceryl, Caspia, Telmar; almost every large city in the Kingdom had a CYN factory.
The second phase, that extended through 1878 and 1882, was marked for the origin and rise of chemical engineering companies and products around the country. The chemical giant's, Caspian-based Hoechst Chemieingenieurwesen, (or for short Hoechst) ,factory in Caspia had become "A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws. There were 150 kilometres of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8,500 machine tools, seven electrical stations, 140 kilometres of underground cable and 46 overhead.". Other chemical eng. companies also emerged during this period, such as Verhastadein Chemicallen and KNM Chemie-Aktiengesellschaftens. However, few corporations could compete with Hoechst in Cygnar's market, what led to a monopoly in the chemicals market, owned by Hoechst.
The last phase of Cygnar's industrialization was the phase of electrical engineering, that lasted from 1886 to 1890, a rather short period. Noticeable by the growth of companies such as Allgemeine Elektrische and Cygnar elektrische, this phase was the most revolutionary during Cygnar's industrialization. Marked by the origin of a partial mechanization of assembly lines and increase of the use of electricity in factories, this phase skyrocketed the productivity of factories in Cygnar. Cities, were now partially lit by electrical lamps, the national telegraph system was now much more efficient due to advances made in the electrical field and several basic electric products were now much cheaper.
Within this age, several important technological achievements were made in Cygnar, with the arrival of the first telephone, the first armoured tank, Cygnar's first phonograph and during this time the first early prototypes for warjack armored units were being made by the Caspian armoury.
The years of expansion, 1891-1900Edit
After the massive expansion of the Cygnaran industry, the need for more raw material was becoming bigger. This called for new territories where Cygnar could exploit resources to feed the growing industrial needs. Another marking event of this period, was King Hector's III death, due to Stomach cancer. King Vinter Raelthorne IV, assumed the crown.
King Vinter led the expansion of the Kingdom of Ceryl, that took the northern lowlands known as Ord. Ord, now incorporated into ceryl, had large amounts of iron and several industrial metals, but it was not enough to cope with the demands of the growing national industry.
The second expansion phase during Vinter's reign, was to the islands south of Cygnar, known as the islands of Cryx. Over 200 islands made up the archipelago, that would be the final conquest of Cygnar during the decade. Cryx, with its rich fuel and iron deposits, completely fulfilled the demands of cygnar's industry. With over 200 ships and 800,000 soldiers employed in the task of conquering the islands, the unorganized tribal kingdoms were quickly overrun by the royal forces. It took no more than 7 years to fully exploit Cryx' resources, until cities were decently populated and mines had proper amounts of workers. Cryx, by the end of the decade, was held as an imperial territory, governed by a governor appointed by the royal assembly.
King Vinter's reign was oppressive and cruel, Vinter was a tyrant who sent his inquisition to pursue anyone that spoke ill of him. He was losing public support, but it wasn't until 1896 that Leto Raelthorne, Vinter's brother, defeated Vinter and took control of the throne. Vinter managed to escape, and has not been found until today. This date, was known as the Lion coup, where Leto Raelthorne deposed his brother and assumed control of the Cygnaran crown.
The first action King Leto took, was to develop a new array of warjack prototypes, and expand the royal armoury. He also funded the research for new mechanikal contraptions, including storm glaives and storm rifles, to be later used by stormblade infantry and storm gunners, respectively. His interest in research led to a 70% increase in the government budget directed into research, something Leto expected to pay off in the next decades. The first tesla coil weaponry prototypes to be fielded in battle were rather innacurate and inneficient, what lead to a replacement of tesla coil technology to mechanikally generated energy. This new technology, was implemented into storm glaives and also used to power some warjack prototypes.
With the growth of Cygnar's empire, the kingdom needed a more powerful navy, to protect its colonies and overseas dominions. Leto, led the second major expansion of the Royal navy, adding over six new warship models, developed by the VKN Shipyards in cooperation with the caspian armory, to the navy, and also, built hundreds of watercraft, to replace older ships.
Diplomacy and Alliances, 1901-1910Edit
It took at least a decade for cygnar to become fully integrated into the rest of the world, after it left isolationism that had lasted for a century. It was not until at least 1910 that trade flourished, alliances were forged and Cygnaran products could be found all over the world.
After deals were made with the neighbouring nation of Mishmahig, Cygnaran companies had their first international operating experience. Major resource extraction and manufacturing centers were established, and acted as a checkpoint for all exports to Amplector. It was truly not until the 1910s that Cygnar had prospered as it did in those years. More people became millionaires between 1901-1910 than in any other period of Cygnaran history. Cities began to grow rapidly, since families were becoming wealthier, they could afford to have more sons. Automobiles were now a common sight to see in streets of the major urban centers, and new technological advances made life easier for the common man.
Military alliances with various nations, these including Servoth, Vitzenburg, Inoroth and Mishmahig granted safety for the kingdom. Cygnar and its people were at the height of their golden age, something that would change drastically at the turn of the decade...
Cygnar as a country, has a rather diverse environment, changing drastically from region to region. The presence of a large mountain range within its centre, the Wyrmwall, creates several singularities within the climate of Cygnar.
The north region of Cygnar is mostly flat, a factor that is heavily influenced by the presence of several lakes and bays in the region. From the borders with the Wyrmwall, until the borders with Mishmahig in the extreme north of Cygnar, the terrain is rarely mountainous or hilly, being dominantly flat. The North is the warmest region in Cygnar, being the closest to the Equateur line with a more humid subtropical climate. Vegetation in the northern forests is usually a compound between subtropical rainforests and mixed forests.
The central, mountainous region knwown as the Wyrmwall is the region with lowest temperatures in Cygnar. While being the source of most of Cygnar's metal resources, it is sparsely populated and logistics are often an issue in the central province of Cygnar. Vegetation is uncommon, but Montane forests usually populate the outskirts of the Wyrmwall. A subarctic climate is predominant in the region.
The Southern region of Cygnar, bordering the Crystalli Harenan Sea and the Gulf of Caspia has a predominantly marine climate, with frequent showers and strong winds coming from the south. The terrain is flat, near the sea level. The Hrothgar peninsula's climate is mostly like the Southern region. Between both peninsulae, there is the Hrothgar canal, that connects the Crystalli Harena with the Vitus Ocean.
Cygnar's vast array of natural resources include: coal, petroleum, mercury, natural gas, sulfur, tin, copper, limestone, iron ore, pyrites, salt, clay, chalk, lead, quartz, silver, gold, many strategic minerals, and arable land.
The Kingdom of Cygnar has few lakes and rivers throughout its territory. There are 3 major rivers throughout Cygnar, those of the Reik River, The Dragon's Tongue River and The Black river. The Black River, is the largest of them, crossing Cygnar from east to south, totalling an approximate lenght of 2,876 kilometres. To the north of Cygnar, there are ten major lakes, with the Viktoria lake being the largest, with an approximate area of 17,200 square kilometres. These lakes are usually grouped into one water system, that of the Nordrhein Water system.
Whilst being few, the rivers present in Cygnar are of immense importance. The Dragon's Tongue River, is essential for the existance of Caspia, who grew on the margins of this major river. The Black river irrigates the Cygnaran southern and eastern lands, that would not be arable without the presence of the mentioned river. The Reik river, to the North, enables merchant ships to reach deep in-land areas of Cygnar, such as the Eastern Midlunds and the outskirts of Corvis. The lakes present in the Northern region are also of major importance to Cygnar, their presence ensure that the cities of the North are supplied with a decent amout of water.
According to studies led by the National Academy of Biology, approximately 55.43% of Cygnar's land is arable. While subsistence agriculture is present in some regions of the kingdom, commercial agriculture is not a major activity exploited within Cygnar.
According to the National Index of Nature and Biology, there are approximately 42,000 insect, 743 bird, 423 mammal and 219 reptile species present in Cygnaran territory. While few species are under danger of being extinct due to hunting and deforestation, those under risk are emphatically protected. The state animal of Cygnar, the Cygnus bird, is under major danger of being extinct from the lush forests of the north, thus the Cygnaran crown has created several national parks, that preserve these majestic birds alive.
While no major legislations apply to the protection of the environment against deforestation and pollution, in the past years, King Raelthorne has established 36 national parks, these occuppying 94,147 square kilometres in total. Additionally, minor legislations have been created to contain water pollution and major deforestation of Cygnar's forests. Penalties for violating the environmental code can reach 5,600,000 Cygnaran Crowns in fines to corporations.
Cygnar contains a total of 1,563,862 square kilometres tree coverage, with forty-five percent of the land mentioned above being part of national parks or state-owned property. The majority of Cygnar's forests are those of temperate broadleaf and mixed forest , with trees such as spruces, pines, oaks and firs.
The Cygnaran economy, for centuries, depended on Cygnar's rich land filled with natural resources. Right after its foundation, Cygnar's economy was built around the exploitation of mineral resources and basic agriculture. With the coming of the Industrial revolution and the discovery of new uses for coal, Cygnar rapidly industrialized itself, thanks to the vast array of resources needed for its factories; such as coal, iron and natural gas, and as well thanks to several governmental industrial-assisting programmes.
The Cygnaran economy is based in a capitalist social-economic plan, and has grown immensely in the past decades. The basis of Cygnar's national industry is that of the Heavy Engineering sector, with important entities making up this robust sector of Cygnar's economy. Out of the 5 richest companies in Cygnar, 3 of them belong to the Heavy engineering sector.
The Engineering sector is closely followed by the Chemical sector, whose importance comes mostly from Hoechst , the major manufacturer of chemical products in Cygnar. While Cygnar's lands are largely arable, the agricultural sector was never properly developed. This can be explained due to the presence of abundant mineral resources, that would be mostly useful in an industrial nation.
Part of the success of Cygnar's industry, can be attributted due to the factor previously mentioned. The abundant presence of Iron, Coal and Sulfur in Cygnar's territory made local companies not need to import raw materials to operate their factories, thus leading to a more efficient production. Another factor, is that the Cygnaran government commonly subsidizes exportations for several major companies, thus making the price of Cygnaran products more accessible and competitive in the international market.
Since Cygnar industrialized later than most nations in Vapor, it was able to model its factories after those of Amplectoran nations, thus making more efficient use of its capital and avoiding legacy methods in its leap to the envelope of technology. Cygnar invested more heavily than most nations in research, especially in the chemistry, motors and electricity. Besides, Cygnar is not weighted down with an expensive worldwide colonial empire that needs defense.
Lacking a technological base at first, the Cygnarans imported their engineering and hardware from other nations, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways.The advancements made in transport technologies during the Treaty of Caspia period made logistics simple, almost every city and factory had a railway line connecting it, sea ports were expanded and the merchant fleet improved.
New technologies such as modern locomotives, oil-driven steam trucks and combustion engines made the delivery of goods be reduced by almost three times. A package that would originally take two weeks to deliver, now would only take around 5 days. By 1895, Cygnar had 32,400 locomotives pulling 132,000 passengers and 98,000 tons of freight, and forged ahead of most nations in Vapor.
An important factor that has proven to be decisevely vital in Cygnar's economy, is that of a two sided development, one in the field of research and one in the field of manufacturing, that have kept Cygnaran companies innovative and competitive. Among the 5 biggest exporters in Cygnar, three of them belong to the field of Heavy engineering, thus creating a large annual revenue. With the diplomatic opening of Cygnar following the Lion's coup, in 1901, Cygnar's exports skyrocketed, this success can be attributted to the governmental aid on subsidizing exportations.
Among other successful sectors in Cygnar's exporting economy, is that of the raw material exportation. Aysuf Bergbaukonglomerat, the largest mineral exporter in Cygnar, is solely responsible for 64% of the total exports revenue on the sector. The rich soil of Cygnar, lead to annual surpluses in mineral resources, where the national mines could produce more than what was being used in the industries of Cygnar. The major importing partners of Cygnaran mineral resources include Vitzenburg, Inoroth and Servoth.
The governments heavy investment in the field of research, leads to an innovative and competitive national industry. The fields that receive the largest public and private investments, are those of Electrical engineering, Chemistry and Mechanical engineering. There are several important research institutions within Cygnar, but those of the Caspian University and the National Scientific academy being the most important.
The Kingdom annually exports to more than 10 nations, including Servoth, Vitzenburg, Inoroth, Mishmahig, Inesea, and others. Chief commercial exports to these nations, include Heavy machinery, mineral resources, including coal, copper, iron, tin, sulfur, mercury; Tesla technology, electric appliances and Industrial Chemicals.
Science and TechnologyEdit
The importance given to research and technology in Cygnar lead to numerous notable achievements. Among the highest expenditures of the Cygnaran government, research is present within the 5 most invested areas. Cygnaran engineers, physicians and mathematicians are within the finest of the world. In the last decades, they have been responsible for several discoveries that shaped the modern world.
Cygnar's advances in engineering, were spearheaded by Drago Salvoro, a Caspian inventor, who invented the first prototype for railroads in 1805. Another pioneer in the field, was Alexander Krumm, who aided in the development of the first steam engines. Among others, Otto von Aysuf, inventor of the steam powered pump, Victor Kiehl, who built the Caspian canal and Markus Obst, who was responsible for significant advances in telegraphs.
Cygnaran Chemists and Biologists are also of significant importance. Cerylian Biologist Joseph Karntên was solely responsible for identifying and studying 700 species of insects, mammals and reptiles. Industrialist and Chemist Markus Hoechst, is responsible for discovering 6 types of acids, 3 types of gases and 7 types of salts. He was awarded the prize for the Chemist of the Decade from the Cygnaran Royal Academy of Chemistry and Sciences.
Cygnaran Physicians, most notably Albert Niederbahn, Karl Liegniwitz and Otto von Tarnhost are responsible for over 30 advancements made in the field of physics, an achievement that few nations can be proud of. Physics, while not being the main field of investment from private and public investors, is becoming widely important and recognized in Cygnar. The Royal Academy of Physics, in Caspia, is an example to illustrate this.
Cygnar's location in the center of the world makes it a major trading hub, both in naval means and land means. Cygnar's railroads totals over 260 thousand miles of length, there are over 62 major trading ports and 7 major airbases. Cygnar's infrastructure was largely influenced and developed during King Vilmar III's reign.
With the end of Cygnar's isolationism and the coming of large scale trade, Cygnar's railroads saw major expansions. The Northern-international railroad was established, connecting nations of Amplector to Cygnar. Plans to establish a railroad connecting the eastern hemisphere to Cygnar have always been debated, but the mentioned railroad was never built. The Caspian railroad, the main railway line in the Kingdom, connects Ceryl and Caspia, thus making it of great importance, where imported goods are shipped towards Caspia.
Infrastructure in the south, is also well developed. The city of Nuln, a major manufacturing center in Cygnar, gave large strategical importance to the region. Ports such as that of Highgate, have almost as much activity as that of Ceryl. Additionally, the presence of the Hrothgar canal, makes the region bustle with activity. The fees to cross such canals, can reach values as elevated as 78,000 crowns, thus making the area a place of heavy investments from both the private and public sectors.
The central region has seen major efforts to create a decent railway line, after its natural resource importance. Tunnels are very common to see in the Wyrmwall mountains, but complications in the terrain make railroads much expensive. Airships are usually employed to replace wagons, thus airbases dot the landscape of the icy mountains.
Historically, the Cygnaran cuisine was always generous and meant to feed well. Historically, the most common dish within Cygnar was that of a few slices of meat, usually Pork or beef, followed with vegetables and potatoes. Pork was always an important part of the Cygnaran cuisine; Cygnar is famed for its unmatched quality in producing various types of meat, but mainly, pork. Beer, Liquor, Tea, Wine, Orange and Grape Juices and Water are among the most common drinks. Coffee is also consumed, but not majorly accross Cygnar. The Wine produced in Southern Cygnar is of highest quality, and is exported around the entire world. Beer is a major part of Cygnar's culture, with the first brewers being originated in the 500s.
• Meat: Pork, beef, and poultry are the main varieties of meat consumed in Cygnar, with pork being the most popular. Among poultry, chicken is most common, although duck, goose, and turkey are also enjoyed. Game meats, especially boar, rabbit, and venison are also widely available all year round. Lamb and goat are also available, but are not as popular.
• Vegetables: Vegetables are often used in stews or vegetable soups, but are also served as side dishes. Carrots, turnips, spinach, peas, beans, broccoli and many types of cabbage are very common. Fried onions are a common addition to many meat dishes throughout the country.
• Fish: Trout is the most common freshwater fish on the Cygnaran menu; pike, carp, and perch also are listed frequently. Seafood traditionally was restricted to the northern coastal areas, but today, many sea fish, such as fresh herring, tuna, mackerel, salmon and sardines, are well established throughout the country.
Cygnaran art was historically only largely influenced by christianity. Due to Cygnar's mostly isolationist history, few international movements actually affected Cygnaran painters. Instead, Cygnaran artists developed their own national movements, that became quite famous and respected after Cygnar left isolation. During its early history, Cygnaran artists were greatly influenced by religion; Christianity, and most art pieces resembled holy figures or symbols of Christianity. Cygnar's art, however, until today was largely influenced by three styles of painting:
• Gothic Art: Dating back to Cygnar's middle ages, this type of art can still be seen in most Cathedrals that still stand nowadays. Probably the most influential art styles of Cygnar, Gothic art flourished for over a millenium. It usually depicted religious images, or holy figures in its paintings.
• Impressionist Art: Originated by Carl Hassendorf in 1899, Caspia. Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), common, ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
• Surrealist Art: The exploration of the dream and unconsciousness as a valid form of reality, the desire to push against the boundaries of socially acceptable behaviors and traditions in order to discover pure thought and the artist's true nature and emphasis on the mysterious, marvelous, mythological and irrational in an effort to make art ambiguous and strange; are some of the characteristics of this innovative paiting style, originated in Caspia, 1904.